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The password can be manually added to the stored configuration but is not recommended because adding the password manually allows anyone to decrypt all passwords in that configuration. Configuring New or Unknown Passwords If you enter or cut and paste cipher text that does not match the master key, or if there is no master key, the cipher text is accepted or saved, but an alert message is printed.

The existing type 6 keys are not encrypted. The existing type 6 keys are left as is. If the old master key is lost or unknown, you have the option of deleting the master key using the no key config-key password-encryption command. Deleting the master key using the no key config-key password-encryption command causes the existing encrypted passwords to remain encrypted in the router configuration.

The passwords will not be decrypted. Enabling the Encrypted Preshared Key The password encryption aes command is used to enable the encrypted password. How to Configure an Encrypted Preshared Key. Define a Certificate Authority or CA required. Download and authenticate the CA's certificate required.

Request the router's identity certificate required. Save the CA and identity certificates required. Verify the certificate operation optional. The following subsections will discuss each of these tasks. Because this can represent a large amount of information, NVRAM might be too small to store this information, which is possible on smaller, older router models.

If this is the case, you have the option of having the router download this information from the CA with the exception of the following information: the router's public and private keys and the signature on the CA certificatethis information will be stored locally in NVRAM and all other certificate information will be downloaded to the router when it boots up and will be stored in RAM.

This process is called query mode. To turn on the query mode of the router, use this command: Router config crypto ca certificate query To turn off query mode later, use the no crypto ca certificate query after the router has downloaded all certificate information and then execute copy running-config startup-config to save the downloaded certificate information to NVRAM.

If you currently are not using query mode and want to enable it, use the above command to remove all certificate information stored in NVRAM and then save the router's configuration copy running config startup-config. Note Using the query method affects the performance of the router because it must download the certificate information before the router can establish IPsec tunnels.

Also, this means that if the CA is not reachable, the router will not be able to download the certificate information and thus will not be able to build IPsec tunnels. Remember that if you want to create a separate RSA key pair for this certificate compared to other certificates your router has, you'll need to add a key pair label to the end of the command see the "Multiple RSA Key Pairs" section earlier. When executing this command, you are taken into a subcommand mode where you can enter the properties for interacting with the CA.

The enrollment url command specifies the URL to interact with the CA when requesting certificates; again, your CA administrator will give you this information. These are the only two required commands to interact with the CA; the remaining commands are optional. If your CA is behind a web proxy, you'll need to configure your router to interact with the proxy with the enrollment http-proxy command, specifying the IP address or FQDN of the proxy and the port number to use when contacting the proxy.

The enrollment mode ra command specifies whether or not the CA provides for an RA s ; you don't need to configure this command because IOS routers will determine automatically whether the CA is using an RA s or not. If the router determines that RAs are being used, this command will appear automatically in the router's configuration.

The enrollment retry period command specifies the length of time that the router will wait for a certificate from the CA before requesting it again. The default is one minute. The enrollment retry count command specifies how many times the router will continue contacting the CA for a certificate request before giving up; the default configuration specifies that the router will try continually without ever giving up. For more information on using a router as a CA, see the "Routers as Certificate Authorities" section later in the chapter.

The crl command specifies configuration options for using CRLs. If you know that your CA uses CRLs, don't configure this command; otherwise you inadvertently might use a revoked certificate, because CRL checking is optional with this command enabled. This feature is new in IOS The ocsp url command specifies the OCSP's location of revoked certificates; if the CA's certificate has this location already on it and you configure the ocsp url command, the configured command overrides the information on the CA's certificate.

The revocation-check command specifies the method or order of methods to use to check the revocation status of a certificate. There are three defined method parameters: crl, ocsp, and none. The query certificate command specifies that any certificate information for this particular trustpoint is not stored in NVRAMthe advantage of this command over the crypto ca certificate query command is that the latter is global and affects all CAs defined on the router, whereas the former affects only the current trustpoint's configuration.

The primary command specifies that this particular trustpoint is assigned the primary CA role on the router; this command is necessary only if you have more than one CA configured and you want one to be the primary one. The source interface command, new in IOS This command typically is used when the exit interface of the router has a private or IP address, but the router does have another interface with a public address and wants this address to be used.

If you omit this command, the router uses the interface chosen based on its routing table selection. The default command, followed by another trustpoint command, sets the specified trustpoint command back to the default value. This is useful if you want to undo a trustpoint configuration command. Other optional commands can be configured under the trustpoint in the trustpoint subcommand mode , however, I'll discuss these in later sections.

Note In IOS versions before This is also true of the crypto ca trusted-root, which allows you to specify a root CA in a hierarchical CA setup. Example illustrates this process. The name of the CA is "caserver. It's important that you do this, because this is the weakest link in the security process of using certificates.

At this point, a man-in-the-middle attack could be occurring and you could be receiving a hostile or invalid CA certificate. Step 6: Request the Router's Identity Certificate Before you can request the router's identity certificate, first you must have downloaded and verified the CA's certificate in Step 5. This is necessary so that the router can use the CA certificate to validate any certificate received from the same CA's domain , including the router's own identity certificate.

Likewise, you already must have generated an RSA key pair which is used to sign and verify the identity certificate request. First you'll be prompted for a challenge password. This password serves two purposes: it is used by the CA to control who can request a new certificate and by the CA administrator to revoke a valid certificate.

You also have the option of including the router's serial number or IP address in the identity certificate. Once the request has been approved and the identity certificate generated, your router will download the identity certificate automatically. Example illustrates how to use SCEP to request an identity certificate for your router. You will need to verbally provide this password to the CA Administrator in order to revoke your certificate.

For security reasons your password will not be saved in the configuration. Please make a note of it. If the router reboots before the requested identity certificate was installed and saved, you'll need to re-execute the crypto ca enroll command; the same is true for downloading and authenticating the CA certificate: crypto ca authenticate.

Step 8: Verify the Certificate Operation Once you have an identity certificate on the router, the last step is to verify the certificate operation process. The output of this command, shown in Example , displays some of the information found on the CA certificate, in addition to how the trustpoint is configured on the router. The first certificate is the router's identity certificate and the second one is the CA's.

This command typically is used if certificates have been revoked on the CA, but you suspect your router doesn't have the most up-to-date CRL. There are many reasons you might want to delete a certificate, including the following: You need to generate an RSA key pair with a longer or shorter modulus. Your current certificate has expired. Your private key has been compromised. You no longer are using the certificate for authentication functions.

To delete a certificate, such as your router's identity certificate, first view the certificate with the show crypto ca certificates command and look for the serial number of the certificate to be revoked. This takes you into a subcommand mode where you remove the certificate by specifying the serial number of the certificate to be deleted with the no certificate command.

Once a certificate is deleted, you can remove its associated RSA key pair with the crypto key zeroize rsa command, discussed earlier in the "Removing RSA Keys" section. Note Cisco doesn't recommend using SCEP to obtain one certificate and TFTP or cut-and-paste to obtain the other certificate when retrieving the CA and identity certificates; this might create problems when trying to retrieve the second certificate from the CA. However, there are obviously a few differences.

Step 4, defining a CA, is slightly different. Next, configure the trustpoint with the crypto ca trustpoint command. This command was discussed previously in the "Step 4: Define a CA" section. Otherwise, you'll use a local TFTP server. The file specified is the CA's certificate and must be in a base encoding scheme. Also, the router will append ". Next, perform Step 5 as discussed previously in the "Step 5: Download and Authenticate the CA's Certificate" section by executing the crypto ca authenticate command to download and authenticate the CA's certificate from the TFTP server.

You'll need to verify the CA's signature and accept it if valid. Following this, request the router's certificate by executing the crypto ca enroll command, discussed previously in the "Step 6: Request the Router's Identity Certificate" section. The name of the file on the TFTP server will be the file name listed in the enrollment url command followed by ".

Give this file to the CA administrator, which then will be used by the CA to create an identity certificate for your router. Example illustrates the use of this command. As you can see in this example, the router's identity certificate is named "cacert.

This reduces the likelihood of another router pulling in your certificate, since there is no authentication or access control with TFTP. Plus, the same file name is used for the CA and identity certificate, like "caserver"; what's unique is the extension: ". Finally, save your router's certificate information with the copy running-config startup-config command, view the trustpoint with the show crypto ca trustpoint command, and view your router's certificate information with the show crypto ca certificates command steps 7 and 8.

Steps 13 are the same as the other two processes for obtaining a certificate. Step 4, defining a CA, is slightly different than the other two, however. As with the other two, configure the trustpoint with the crypto ca trustpoint command. The main difference is the enrollment terminal command, which specifies that cut-and-paste will be used to obtain the CA's certificate. Once you have defined the CA, in Step 5 you'll execute the crypto ca authenticate command to obtain the CA's certificate.

With cut-and-paste, you'll need to open the file the CA administrator gave you containing the CA's certificate, copy the contents including the beginning and ending lines starting with the dashes "" , and paste it into the router's configuration when prompted. Once you have pasted the CA certificate into the router, type in quit on a blank line to terminate the cut-and-paste process and to have the router import the CA's certificate. The execution of this command is similar to the other two processes; however, you have the option of displaying the PKCS 10 information to the router's terminal screen, which you want to answer yes.

At the line that states Certificate Request follows, select the information here, copy it, store it in a file, and send it to the administrator of the CA, who will use it to create an identity certificate for your router. After pasting in the certificate, on a blank line type in quit, signifying that this is the end of the cut-and-paste process. The router will validate the certificate and import it.

And as with the other two certificate enrollment processes, be sure to save your router's certificate and configuration information to NVRAM and view your certificate information to validate it. This process is triggered when a trustpoint CA has been configured, but a corresponding CA certificate doesn't exist on the router; plus, when the router's certificate expires, the router automatically will request a new certificate as needed.

Of course, the administrator of the CA still might need to approve your router's certificate request via autoenrollment; however, you don't have to do anything to initiate the process from the router side. Autoenrollment Trustpoint Configuration The configuration of autoenrollment is very similar to the configuration of enrollment for certificates using SCEP. Once you've done this, you now need to configure your trustpoint. The ip-address command specifies the IP address or router interface name which would include that interface's IP address to be included on the certificate; specify the none parameter if you don't want an IP address on the identity certificate.

The serial-number command specifies that the router's serial number should be included in the certificate request; use the none parameter to exclude this from the certificate request. The password command specifies the password to use for revoking passwords, called the challenge password. If you omit this command, the FQDN default key pair is used.

If you specify the keying information, once autoenrollment starts, if the specified key label doesn't exist, autoenrollment will create the RSA key pair automatically; you can view the new key pair with the show crypto key mypubkey rsa command. Note One thing to note is that if you don't configure a specific value that typically is prompted for by the router, you'll still be prompted for these items; therefore, be sure that you configure all command values even if you set it to none so that autoenrollment occurs without any operator intervention.

The last step you need to perform in the trustpoint configuration is to enable autoenrollment with the auto-enroll command. The regenerate parameter specifies that a new RSA key pair should be created for the certificate even if a named key pair already exists.

This ensures that when a router's certificate expires and it needs to request a new one, new keys are used instead of the ones from the old certificate. Autoenrollment and the CA Certificate When you're done with the trustpoint configuration with autoenrollment, within a few seconds the IOS will tell you that autoenrollment won't work until you obtain the CA's certificate and authenticate it.

The second option is to add the CA's certificate manually, using the crypto ca certificate chain and certificate ca commands. Wait a few minutes for the autoenrollment process to start and obtain the router's identity certificate. If you're impatient, save your router's configuration and reboot it; upon rebooting, it will obtain its identity certificate.

Autoenrollment Example Now that you understand the basic configuration for autoenrollment, I'll look at a simple configuration in Example that illustrates how to set up autoenrollment. After the trustpoint configuration, the IOS warns you that you must next download and authenticate the CA certificate, which I did with the crypto ca authenticate command. Once this was done, about a minute later the autoenrollment process started with the information I configured under the trustpoint.

Once done, you'll want to use the show crypto ca certificates and show crypto ca trustpoints command to verify that autoenroll did indeed acquire an identity certificate for your router. With CABAC, you can have the router look at specific certificate fields on a certificate and the values associated with them when determining whether or not you'll accept the certificate.

CABAC allows you to look at one or more fields on a certificate for an acceptable value s. The kinds of tests you can perform are: equal to, not equal to, contains, doesn't contain, is less than, and is greater than or equal to, for the contents of a field.

If you specify more than one test, all tests on all the specified fields must be true for a match to occur and an action to take place. Another nice feature is that you can specify a field multiple times within CABAC if you are looking for a number of permitted values. For example, maybe you have a network with a router that handles site-to-site sessions with only a few remote access sessions for administrative functions, where the remote access authentication is handled by an AAA server such as Cisco Secure ACS CSACS.

Both the router and use certificates for device authentication. However, you don't want the users to establish IPsec remote access sessions to the router, which they could, by default, because both the router and use certificates from the same CA for device authentication and the same source CSACS for user authentication XAUTH.

In this instance, you can use CABAC to match on the OU field that the network administrators belong to, in addition to the site-to-site connection devices, and thereby exclude all other remote access users. Note The memory and processing required to perform CABAC is minimal and adds very little overhead to the router and certificate verification process. The map can have multiple entries in it, where each entry has a unique sequence number.

Sequence numbers can range from ,, where entries are processed in numerical order. Normally, I use the name of the CA that this will be applied against, but you can use whatever map name you choose just so it is unique among all certificate map names on the router. After executing the crypto ca certificate map command, you are taken into a subcommand mode where you can enter your matching criteria. The first value you enter on a command line is the name of the field on the certificate you're going to match against: subject-name, issuer-name, unstructured-subject-name, alt-subject-name, name, valid-start, and expires-on.

The match certificate command specifies the certificate map configuration you created with the crypto ca certificate map command. At this point, any new IPsec sessions brought up will first be validated using the certificate map. Note The entries in the certificate map are processed in numerical order. Matching on names strings is case-insensitive. As soon as a match is found for an entry, no further processing occurs. When a match occurs all specific matchings in the entry must match , the peer's certificate will then be validated by checking the authenticity of it with the CA's signature, checking the validity date of the certificate, and checking the revocation status the last is optional.

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