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The academics selected to come to Indonesia included associate and full professors and younger staff. They began coming in I remember that their chairman was Prof. Leonard Doyle, who often argued with Prof. The second man was Prof. Leon E. Mears, who became an outstanding figure because, together with Saleh Afiff, he wrote a book on rice marketing in Indonesia.
Another was Hans Schmitt, who was quite young. He had a close working relationship with Ali Wardhana, because both had an interest in fiscal and monetary studies. Sumitro and the faculty secretary, Prof. Tan Goan Po, were responsible for selecting those who were to study in the US. There was an intake each year. Suhadi, Julius Ismael, I and other colleagues left in We were the first batch.
In Ali Wardhana, J. Soemarlin and others followed. After that, a number of other students followed, going to different universities. After Prof. Doyle, Prof. Malcom Davisson held the position of chair. He came from a background in public finance.
Later came Prof. Bruce Glassburner, who stayed longer and had a wide network of contacts. As to the question what about Prof. Andreas Papandreou who taught at Berkeley during that time and later became the socialist prime minister of Greece, it can be told that he became the chair of the Department of Economics at Berkeley after Prof. Paul Taylor. At Berkeley, Prof. Papandreou taught a course in mathematical economics.
I took this course. At that time he did not show an inclination to become involved in politics. For example, Ali Wardhana was particularly interested in fiscal and monetary studies. At the time the department was involved in research on the marketing of rice.
Mears was looking for an assistant and I was selected. Widjojo: The choice of a field of study was decided before departure. Berkeley looked for suitable universities. What was crucial for FEUI at that time was not just those who were sent abroad, but also those who organized the program in Indonesia. In Prof. Sumitro left because of the rebellion in Sumatra and Sulawesi. So we could leave with confidence.
Subroto: During that time there was a lot of pressure from the leftist movement. Djokosutono was the leading figure in defending FEUI. There was a lot of pressure to appoint leftists on the teaching staff. Afiff: Ford provided not only individual scholarships, but also assisted in institution building, such as developing our library.
We were also lucky with our timing. When the Dutch left, the Americans replaced them. By the time the Americans went home, we had already come back. So we took over the positions left empty. That was just chance. Both Subroto and Sadli spoke at an army seminar in Suharto came into the government also in We met at the seminar for the army. Later he asked us to assist him. Stabilization was required to counteract the prevailing very high rate of inflation.
Rehabilitation involved repairs to infrastructure, including irrigation facilities, roads, and agricultural facilities. We developed the plans for economic stabilization and rehabilitation together with President Suharto.
In the same way as the crisis in which was also an economic and political crisis. A question was raised whether President Suharto did not as much listen to us anymore at the time of the crisis? This question may also be correct. As Ali Wardhana said, in the past President Suharto did not merely listen but also took notes. For example, the problem of rescheduling foreign debts in December It had to be explained to him what rescheduling was, how it was done, what was the system used in the world.
If we wanted to reduce the burden of debt we could not merely oppose this system. We had to be familiar with the intricacies. At that time President Suharto was prepared to learn. The Indonesian to speak. He gave us a economy went into free fall lecture. But Ali pushed in too. Another forward. In the end example of economic President Suharto agreed to disaster? The Indonesian deregulation.
That In there were important changes. At that time there was a significant event Ali Wardhana: We were lucky to have Widjojo: Was the economic crisis of initiated by students. Widjojo too. The deregulation began in It Speakers included Sultan Hamengku before taking exams I received suggestions covered many aspects of the economy. Sadli made a salient point: the student dormitory at Pegangsaan where what would have happened.
At Berkeley, we were encouraged import soybeans, you had to go through a to improve the economy and develop the by Widjojo to ponder about the certain processing plant in Tanjung Priok. We need capital, yet we cannot raise developments in our country. He kept this Which country manages its economy that capital internally. We must look for capital up until our return. As a result there was a lot of rethinking.
In the past Indonesia needed foreign investments and lecturers observing the surrounding situation. It was government banks or take out their money foreign loans, was indeed an extraordinarily brave statement. After that, there was a an important year because of the from these banks, many suffered bad division of labor: there were seminars and establishment of the New Order. Towards treatment. Later on, when private banks were which course was the economy to be given an opportunity and there was there were actions.
Before , FEUI was asked to provide directed? Widjojo took the initiative to put competition, there was an improvement in lecturers to the Army Staff College. Sadli together our ideas to overcome the the services of government banks.
It was true was the first to be involved. The situation. Later these ideas became the that there were still shortcomings. One of the Commandant, General Suwarto, was foundations of economic policies. He stepped in to serve as acting director. Thanks to these men especially Subroto the Berkeley program was able to continue, pursuing its goal to send some 45 UI graduates to school abroad between and In , Widjojo and Suhadi left for California, along with J.
Ismael and Barli Halim. Another group soon followed, as if nothing was amiss. But things had changed at No. No one heard Ius Vivat any more. Left-leaning and communist students found themselves facing off against students in Muslim and Catholic organizations.
Militancy was on the rise, even among the teaching staff. Years later, Soemarlin admitted to having refused to hire known leftist students as teaching assistants. Carmel Budiardjo, now famous for her work to free Indonesian political prisoners during the New Order, was one such person.
The atmosphere is relaxed, and the scent of incense from temples wafts on the winds. Here, the myths of Bali are on display. Bima is present. So is Garuda, and a witch, and several figures from the wayang. But there are also pictures of bare-breasted maidens bathing in a pool. Unfortunately, some of the paintings have deteriorated over time.
Jean Couteau, researcher and author, says in his book Museum Puri Lukisan that the collection bears witness to the renewal of the arts of painting and sculpture in Bali. Until the 19th century, Balinese artists worked exclusively to serve the needs of religious institutions and the aristocracy. The Dutch colonial influence, however, created conditions for the opening up of Balinese arts, which then were further encouraged by the development of tourism in the s.
Most of these works were originally collected by Rudolf Bonnet. Any discussion of the museum must mention Bonnet, Walter Spies, and Tjokorda Agung Sukawati, each of whom played a significant role in the renewal of Balinese fine arts.
Walter Spies was born in Moscow in into a family of German descent. In he travelled to the Netherlands East Indies, where he worked for a while as a musician in the Yogyakarta kraton. There, Spies met a prince from Ubud, Tjokorda Raka Sukawati, a member of the Volksraad who had studied for a while in France and who was married to a French woman.
Spies decided to spend some time in the small town. Over a period of several years, Spies came to be known as the foremost nonBalinese authority on Balinese culture. He was variously an insect collector, a composer, a film production consultant, an author of books and articles, a patron of the arts, and a choreographer — he was the first to arrange the now-famous kecak dance as a secular performance.
Spies opened up his house to guests from abroad, including Rudolf Bonnet, a Dutchman of Huguenot ancestry. The Museum Puri Lukisan, Ubud, These two European artists gave added momentum to the renewal of the Balinese arts.
Spies and Bonnet provided artists with materials and instructed them in new techniques. Spies himself oversaw the training of 12 to 15 young painters in his own house. He also helped them market their work. In the Pita Maha association was established. The association became established in art centers around Bali, and involved between and artists.
Bali became established as an artistic center equal to China, Japan, and India. Lempad, in particular, became acknowledged around the world as a major artist. And then, World War II broke out. Accused of sexual misconduct, Spies was expelled from Pita Maha. Bonnet protested and also withdrew from the association. In , Pita Maha was dissolved.
Spies and Bonnet were arrested by Japanese troops. Bonnet was held in Makassar but eventually returned to Bali after Indonesian independence. He used the revolutionary period to do research, train young painters, and collect the works of Balinese painters. He revived his plans to establish a museum in company with Tjokorda Agung.
In , the Ratna Wartha Foundation was established to develop the museum. Donations flowed from the Indonesian government, from the Dutch cultural association Sticusa, and from the Ford Foundation. The name Puri Lukisan was coined by Yamin. Bonnet and Tjokorda Agung died in Their remains were cremated in a shared ceremony in Puri Lukisan continues to attract the interest of artists from other areas, including such notable figures as Affandi, S.
Sudjojono, Dullah, and many from abroad. These artists come to study in Ubud and to find inspiration from one of the finest collections of Balinese art in existence. It was donated to the museum by Michael Harris, a former Foundation Representative.
The administration felt that it had to defend itself by all means necessary. Some books even ended up being held for safekeeping in Cipinang prison. As a safety precaution, course titles were changed. Batara Simatupang, another grantee who finished his studies at Stanford University in , left for Poland to study with the noted socialist economist Oscar Lange at the Warsaw Central School of Planning and Statistics.
Berkeley professor Glassburner viewed these trends with dismay, but No. And, in fact, it had never been destined to be one. Even in its earliest days, the active role that this institution would play in national life was implied, if not always evident. Suwarto was now an army colonel and the deputy commander of Seskoad. To those Indonesians who admired him, he was an extraordinary military man. A year earlier, after their return from studies in the US, Sadli and Subroto had begun to teach courses there.
Similarly, the officer-students at Seskoad had used the ideas that these economists generated to form their own political agenda, preparing for the day when they would hold power — that is, after PKI had been eliminated. That time did come, in , with the rise of Major General Suharto as commander of the armed forces and then head of state. Thereafter, as the concepts of the Salemba technocrats began to be implemented on a national scale, the face of Indonesia changed more rapidly. Up until this time Suharto was not familiar with Widjojo, although he might have known Sadli and Subroto during his time as an officer-student at Seskoad in and Suharto was still just an army commander, but since his emergence on the national stage following the events of 30 September he had demonstrated a level of authority that already proved a match for Sukarno.
Students who opposed Sukarno enthusiastically invited him to give the opening speech for the seminar. In his address at the seminar, Suharto expressed his appreciation to the organizers. The FEUI technocrats saw the need to embark on a rational 67 economic development plan, one for which coherent and consistent leadership was vital.
Yet what was rational was not necessarily democratic. Democracy, it seemed, was a luxury, a notion to celebrate freedom, while freedom itself could be bothersome. Nevertheless, as time went by, the need for greater democracy grew. The New Order, which began with the mass murder of its political opponents in and , could not transform itself from an emergency-driven regime into a free and democratic administration. Anxiety and fear were epidemic and surfaced even when people tried to think of stopping the decay through a change of government.
He sat securely in his home on Jalan Cendana in Jakarta, both as president of the country and as father to his children. The systems and procedures set up by Widjojo and his team were ignored whenever they were inconvenient. Towards , when Suharto resigned as president, Sumitro Djojohadikusumo harshly criticized the regime for the institutional decay that had occurred. By that time, however, it was too late. Widjojo and his team had long been out of the cabinet. For Suharto, the old technocrats were history.
Habibie, with 17 references, as the source of a new economic approach, one unknown in the halls of No. I n , an American scholar set out for the Indonesian island of Ternate. His goal: to locate a tribe that, so it was said, communicated by whistling instead of speaking. On Ternate, he was arrested by the Indonesian military and accused, among other things, of making radio contact with a Dutch submarine.
He was detained for more than two months without any official charges having been levied against him. In , an American woman who worked at an English language school in Bukittinggi was arrested. Central government troops had regained control of the area, and the few remaining rebels continued to wage guerrilla warfare.
Beatrice Sutherland, who had been sent by the Foundation to Indonesia to teach English and who had lived in Bukittinggi for eight years, was accused by the central military commander of being a PRRI sympathizer. His proof: a recording she had made of the sound of gunfire. Sutherland explained that she had become intrigued by the contrast between birdsong and the sound of gunfire, which could be heard on an almost daily basis, and had made the recording as a souvenir.
But the military officials believed that she was using the recording to send signals to rebel soldiers. This one in Yogyakarta in protested continuing Dutch control over West Irian. To be an American in Indonesia in the s and s was not always a comfortable experience, particularly if one wished to study a remote ethnic group or make an unusual sound recording.
This was understandable. But the US did not simply criticize this guided democracy. These officers, along with anti-Sukarno civilian leaders like Sumitro Djojohadikusumo, were good partners for the CIA in its quest to thwart the establishment of a communist regime in Indonesia. Crates of bazookas, machine guns, and grenades, each clearly marked with the stamp of the US Navy, were sent to the Permesta rebels in North Sulawesi.
An even more obvious indicator of US interference in Indonesian politics occurred in May when a bomber belonging to the rebel forces was shot down, and its pilot, Allen Pope — believed to be a US Air Force pilot — was captured. Though Pope was never officially acknowledged by the US government to be a member of the US Air Force, American involvement in Indonesian politics could no longer be kept secret.
The outcry over the Pope incident caused a sea change in US policy. Jakarta, Indonesia had always been ambivalent toward the US. American diplomats in Jakarta believed that Sukarno was beginning to distance himself from the US. They felt that he suspected Washington wanted to overthrow him.
At the same time, he also made it clear that Indonesia was not rejecting the assistance the US was offering. He maintained a pragmatic attitude, even in periods of resurgent nationalist rhetoric. The first shipment arrived by a C transport plane, in which Sukarno was only too happy to take a short ride.
Whether to accept aid, or whether to provide assistance — in those days, the variations on this theme were many. The most interesting example of this confused or, perhaps more accurately, this ambivalent state of affairs can be seen in the relationship between the Indonesian government and the Ford Foundation, which survived the heated and, finally, explosive s.
Since the beginning of its history in Indonesia the Ford Foundation played a unique role in Indonesian efforts to obtain foreign aid. Hoffman became interested in Indonesia only by coincidence. In the late s, when he was working in Europe administering the Marshall Plan, he learned that the Netherlands wanted to use a portion of its aid to put an end to the independence movement in its former colony. He threatened to stop further assistance to the Netherlands unless it desisted.
Hoffman quickly assigned Dyke Brown and Edwin Arnold, two consultants for the Foundation, to conduct an initial survey in Jakarta. So its office on Kebon Sirih in So, after of this money, came to Indonesia looking for — in fact, told — to join the Ford office by graduating with a BA in Sociology in I students to train in population, I accepted Assistant Representative William Lightfoot. I was accepted into the MA In , after two masters degrees and but for some reason Mr.
Lightfoot and 15 years being involved with the Mr. Quinn, who was to win a Ford-Rockefeller population based in New York, came to Jakarta studies award to do research on every couple of months. Since the transmigration in Lampung. I was workload was slowing down he convinced to do this by another convinced me to teach him Foundation program officer, Peter Indonesian, and in return he would Weldon.
After the research was teach me English. But his idea of completed, Mr. Weldon further English was Oxford English, and he convinced me to get a PhD from decided my lessons would focus on Australian National University in reciting Shakespeare. More recently, in , going to school in America? I initially rejected the much more so than the actual offer, but my parents convinced me institution. What I appreciate most to go. There was substantial about the Foundation is the fact that educational funding provided to they have been able to pick up on Mayling Oey-Gardiner at St.
Xavier College, Chicago, Quinn atypical and marginal cases, put me in contact with a colleague of his at program at William and Mary, and upon especially now through the International St. I have always felt that full scholarship. In , just before Again my mentor, Mr. Quinn, influenced for many granting organizations, people Sukarno closed the borders, I was awarded the direction of my future.
Widjojo, who was not just financially. The people who kept believe, they were only able to provide heading BAPPENAS, was instrumental in challenging and encouraging me have grants through the government , Mr. During the debate. This was also the time when the US certain there are many others whose lives summer of Mr.
Quinn arranged for me allocated a lot of funds to population, and have been affected as well. To me the Ford a summer job at Cornell to help John Wolff Indonesia received the largest multilateral Foundation stands for providing with his Indonesian-language study book. I population grant. It was also the time when development assistance with a human also landed a second job assisting Dr.
The term Green Revolution referred to the dramatic improvements in grain crop yields resulting from the introduction of new varieties of wheat and rice. The scientific breakthrough of was designed to stave off the mass famine predicted for Asia in the s. In fact it was to alter profoundly the political economy of rice.
The timing proved crucial for Indonesia. The economy was in shambles. The population was growing at an alarming rate, and the country still suffered from the severe rice shortage that had contributed to the fall of Sukarno. Importing rice was not only costly, but for a proud nation it was an embarrassment. By the time Suharto took power, just about everyone was short of food, and the new varieties were a boon. They provided increased productivity, economic stability, and self-respect.
But managing the new technology was a problem. The integrated package of irrigation infrastructure, chemical fertilizer, and improved seed varieties required substantial investment, something a large landowner could manage but which was beyond the capacity of poor or landless peasants. The political mood was also problematic. In the aftermath of the massacres, the army took political control of rural Java.
Villagers, whatever their politics, were no longer free to conduct their own local affairs. The combination of these economic and political forces — not to mention continued population growth — brought abrupt Threshing rice in the village of Abianbase, Bali, Landowners became less willing to enter sharecropping arrangements, thereby jeopardizing the social harmony underpinning rural life.
Increasingly, fields of ripe grain were opened to outsiders who brought in their own harvesters — mostly men — using sickles and rotary weeders rather than the traditional palm-held blade. By the early s, Indonesia was experiencing the highest levels of rice production in its history. But rice-land owners, eager to cut labor costs, had increasingly turned to machinery, and within a few years had ended a major source of paid work for poor women.
Bresnan, however, believed deeply that the Green Revolution was good for Indonesia, and eventually his view prevailed. The tradition of local community work — scholarships, income-generating training activities, gender empowerment programs — is solid. But critical questions should be raised. Some say that the new rice varieties are more vulnerable to pest and disease; they cite, for example, the devastation wrought by the brown planthopper in Indonesia. Others say that soils are eventually impoverished by long-term intensive applications of chemical fertilizer.
Still others point to pollution by pesticides, the most dangerous being the poisoning of fish. IRRI stands its ground, and claims that the technology has actually reduced the amount of pesticides farmers have had to use, with happy consequences for the environment and for human health.
In , to global accolades, Indonesia finally achieved rice self-sufficiency. The report card however has been mixed. Poor rural dwellers have had to compete for shrinking rice-field jobs, and many have fled to the cities to look for wage labor. Even so, resources were limited. Relations with the US were not easy.
And, indeed, it was active in the drive toward a resolution of the conflict between the blocs. Its hosting of the Asia-Africa Conference in Bandung in marked the initial declaration of this non-aligned position. This was a policy the US did not fully appreciate. An agreement seemed to be within reach, but opposition to this clause had already spread within Indonesia. This incident demonstrated that, for Indonesia, foreign aid often involved complications not easily resolved.
For nearly two decades Foundation grantees promoted the involvement of local farmers in the design and management of the systems that irrigate their fields. After graduating with a degree in agricultural science from the Faculty of Agriculture at UI, I served for ten months as research assistant to Prof. At the same time I was an assistant to the guest sociologist, Prof.
Wertheim from the University of Amsterdam. In October I completed my doctorate in agriculture under Prof. Sekampung, Lampung, South Sumatra. They hailed from all across Java, following the path of earlier Javanese migrants who had established settlements in Lampung prior to World War II. They did not just develop farm lands, they established new communities with their own institutions and endeavored to have these settlements recognized officially as new villages by the district government.
Suatu susunan menang mengandungi 14 keping kad 13 keping kad tangan dan kad ke daripada Dinding Kad atau dibuang oleh persaing. Suatu susunan menang mesti mengandungi tiga set tiga keping kad yang pola tertentu dan sepasang mata set dua keping kad yang sama. Contoh Set Menang 9 Siri Penyelidikan Sains Matematik Daripada contoh set menang tersebut, a dan b ialah contoh set dengan tiga keping kad yang sama. Seterusnya, c ialah sepasang mata, iaitu dua keping kad yang sama.
Manakala 1, 2, 3 dan 7, 8, 9 juga ialah contoh set tetapi ialah set yang mengandungi tiga keping Kad Titik dalam susunan. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk mengenal pasti teori permainan yang terdapat dalam Mahjong. Pendekatan dan Hasil Set Kajian Rajah 2. Merujuk kepada Rajah 2, pemain C terdapat kad 20, kad 3 dan buang kad 15 sebagai tindakan tamat gilirannya. Selepas T3, peluang menang antara tiga orang pemain telah berubah. Antaranya, Situasi pemain A: Pemain A mempunyai satu markah.
Kad di tangan pemain A: 1 1 4 5 6 11 13 13 15 16 16 21 21 Situasi pemain B: Pemain B mempunyai tiga markah. Kad di tangan pemain B 3 4 6 6 7 8 8 8 9 9 11 11 13 Situasi pemain C: Pemain C mempunyai empat markah. Kad di tangan pemain C 3 3 5 5 7 9 12 12 12 16 16 21 21 Set menang pemain C Bayangan 3 3 3 5 5 5 7 8 9 12 12 12 16 16 16 3, 5, 8 atau Kad yang diperlu oleh pemain C untuk menang.
Jika pemain C mempunyai satu daripada kad 3, kad 5, kad 8 atau kad 16, dua keping kad liar, kad 21 akan menggantikan kad yang diperlukan supaya dapat menjadi susunan set yang menang. Manakala, kad di tangan pemain A dan pemain B masih tidak berpeluang untuk menang kerana mempunyai kad yang tidak membentuk set. Selain itu, pemain B memperoleh tiga markah dan pemain A tetap hanya satu markah. Walaupun begitu, merujuk kepada Rajah 2 pemain A berpeluang besar untuk menang selepas T4.
Dalam T4, pemain A mengambil dua keping kad 20 dan kad 11 melalui gerakan nasib. Kad di tangan pemain A berpeluang besar untuk menang selepas dapat kad 11 dan buang kad Pemain A mempunyai tiga markah. Kad di tangan Pemain A selepas T4 : 1 1 4 5 6 11 11 13 13 16 16 21 21 Set menang Pemain A Bayangan : 1 1 1 4 5 6 11 11 11 13 13 13 16 16 16 1, 11, 13 atau Kad yang diperlu oleh pemain A untuk menang.
Merujuk kepada Rajah 2, selepas T4 pemain A mempunyai peluang menang yang sama dengan pemain C. Pemain A hanya perlu satu daripada kad 1, kad 11, kad 13 atau kad 16 untuk menang. Jika pemain A terdapat satu daripada kad tersebut, dua keping kad liar, kad 21 akan mengganti kad yang diperlukan untuk menjadi susunan set menang. Merujuk kepada Rajah 2, pemain B dapat kad 10 yang tidak berguna pada gerakan nasib T5. Kemudian pemain B perlu membuangkan sekeping kad daripada kad di tangannya.
Untuk kad di tangan pemain B, kad 7, kad 10 dan kad 13 tidak sesuai untuk menjadi susunan set menang. Sebab itu, pemain B perlu membuat pilihan untuk membuang sekeping kad antara kad 7, kad 10 dan kad Pemain B mempunyai kad 13 yang diperlukan oleh pemain A untuk menang segera, tetapi pemain B tidak mengetahui maklumat tentang set pemain A. Daripada pandangan pemain B bahawa ketiga-tiga pilihannya berpeluang menjadi kemenangan kepada pemain lain. Walaupun begitu, kad 7 ialah pilihan yang tidak tambah markah pemain lain jika dijadikan set.
Sebab itu, pemain B akan membuang kad 7. Selepas itu, sampai giliran pemain C. Pemain C tidak mengambil kad 7 dan mengaktifkan gerakan nasib. Daripada gerakan nasib, pemain C dapat sekeping kad Bunga Biru, kad 17c yang memberi markah kepada pemain C. Disebabkan kad Bunga Biru, pemain C dapat kad 13 daripada hujung kad dinding. Pemain C telah mempunyai suatu set yang boleh menang sekiranya mendapat kad 3, kad 5, kad 8 atau kad Kad 13 bukan kad yang diperlukan oleh pemain C untuk menang.
Kad 13 merupakan hanya pilihan terhadap pemain C dengan keutamaannya, menang cepat dan markah tinggi. Jika pemain C membuang kad 13, pemain A akan menang dengan segera. Susunan set menang pemain A, 1 1 4 5 6 11 11 11 13 13 13 16 16 16 11, Kad yang digantikan oleh kad liar, kad Pemain A berjaya menang dengan jumlah enam markah dalam pusingan ini. Jumlah enam markah pemain A disumbang oleh tiga keping Kad Bunga, Set Pung kad 13, set Pung kad 16 dan satu markah bonus sebagai pemenang.
Selepas pusingan pertama, pemain A dapat enam markah dalam suatu permainan, pemain B dan pemain C tetap tidak mempunyai markah dalam permainan. Maka, pemain A akan menjadi Angin Timur dalam pusingan yang baru. Kajian ini berhenti selepas pusingan pertama. Walaupun permainan hanya berada pada permulaan, teori permainan telah digunakan dalam permainan Mahjong.
Kajian ini telah menunjukkan teori permainan boleh digunakan dalam pusingan Mahjong sahaja. Manakala teori permainan juga boleh digunakan dalam keseluruhan permainan Mahjong, tetapi tidak dapat dikaji dan ditunjuk dalam kajian ini. Kajian ini merupakan suatu pengenalan untuk menggunakan teori permainan dalam Mahjong, saya yakin bahawa terdapat banyak ilmu teori permainan dapat dikaji dalam Mahjong.
Rujukan McCain, R. A Nontechnical Introduction to the Analysis of Strategy. USA: Drexel Univerisity.
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